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Generic Name: Clonazepam

Therapeutic Class: ANXIOLYTIC, ANTIDEPRESSANTS & SEDATIVE


Dosage Form: Tablet


View Prescribing


  • Presentation
  • Description
  • Indications
  • Dosage & Administration
  • Side Effect
  • Precautions
  • Contraindications
  • Drug Interaction
  • Storage

Presentation

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Description

Chemically, clonazepam is a benzodiazepine derivative. It exhibits several pharmacologic properties, which are characteristics of the benzodiazepine class of drugs. In human it is capable of suppressing the spike and wave discharge in absence seizure (petit mal) and decreasing the frequency, amplitude, duration and spread of discharge in minor motor seizure.

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Indication

Epilepsy: Most clinical forms of epilepsy in infants and children, in particular and atypical absences (Lennox syndrome), nodding spasms, primary or secondary generalized tonic-clonic spasms. Clonazepam may also be used in adult epilepsy and focal seizures.

Panic Disorder: Clonazepam is indicated for the treatment of panic disorder, with or without agoraphobia.

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Dosage & Administration

Initial dose should be low and increased gradually to a maintenance dose that controls seizure without toxic effects. During discontinuation, the dose should be tapered.

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Side Effect

The most frequently occurring side effects of clonazepam are referable to CNS depression, drowsiness, fatigue, dizziness, muscle hypotonia, co-ordination disturbance, hypersalivation in infants, paradoxical aggression, irritability and mental change.

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Precautions

When used in patients in whom several different types of seizure disorders coexist, clonazepam may increase the incidence or precipitate the onset of generalized tonic-clonic seizures (grand mal). This may require the addition of appropriate anticonvulsants or an increase in their dosages. The concomitant use of valproic acid and clonazepam may produce absence status. Periodic blood counts and liver function tests are advisable during long term therapy with clonazepam.

The abrupt withdrawal of clonazepam, particularly in those patients on long-term, high-dose therapy, may precipitate status epilepticus. Therefore when discontinuing clonazepam, gradual withdrawal is essential.  Clonazepam may produce an increase in salivation. This should be considered before giving the drug to patients who have difficulty handling secretions. Because of this and the possibility of respiratory depression, clonazepam should be used with caution in patients with chronic respiratory diseases.

Because of the possibility that adverse effects on physical or mental development could become apparent only after many years, a benefit-risk consideration of the long-term use of clonazepam is important in pediatric patients.

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Contraindications

Clonazepam should not be used in patients with a history of sensitivity to benzodiazepine, nor in patients with clinical or biochemical evidence of significant liver disease. It may be used in patients with open angle glaucoma who are receiving appropriate therapy, but is contraindicated in acute narrow angle glaucoma.

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Drug Interaction

The CNS-depressant action of the benzodiazepine class of drugs may be potentiated by alcohol, narcotics, barbiturates, nonbarbiturate hypnotics, antianxiety agents, the phenothiazines, thioxanthene and butyrophenone classes of antipsychotic agents, monoamine oxidase inhibitors and the tricyclic antidepressants, and by other anticonvulsant drugs.

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Storage

Store in a cool & dray Place, protect from light keep out of the reach of children

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